Abortion Methods: Intracardiac Abortion

We will review the different methods of abortion currently used in the United States. Here we will give you a detailed overview of everything you need to know about intracardiac abortions.

What are Intracardiac Abortions?

An intracardiac abortion refers to a medication being injected through the pregnant woman’s abdomen (stomach area) into the fetal heart. The medicine stops the fetus’ heart from beating. This is often done with a medicine called Potassium Chloride. Outside of its use in abortions, Potassium Chloride is also one of several medicines given for execution of prisoners by the death penalty.

Medications to stop the fetus’ heartbeat are also sometimes injected into the amniotic fluid around the fetus, or into a random fetal body part. The most common of these medicines is called Digoxin.[1] Outside of its use in abortions, Digoxin was originally developed for adults  to make the heart beat stronger and with a regular rhythm, or to treat an irregular heart rhythm called atrial fibrillation. Digoxin injected into the fetus is given in a lethal dose that slows the heart beat gradually until it stops.

In research studies, injected Digoxin failed to stop the fetal heartbeat in 6.6% to 13% of abortions. [2][3] In research studies, Potassium Chloride failed less than 1% of the time. [4]

History of Intracardiac Abortion

The first successful intracardiac abortion was in 1978.[5] A woman pregnant with twins chose to abort a fetus with a lethal disease with the hope of saving its twin. Since then, abortionists have used injectable medications particularly before second or third trimester dilation & evacuation (D&E) abortions, to make sure that the fetus is dead before it is delivered. Reasons for these late term abortions include aborting fetuses who have a disability that won’t allow them to live outside of the womb, or who will have health issues for the rest of their life after birth like Down Syndrome. Injected medication abortions are also sometimes done after in vitro fertilization.

Abortion after in vitro fertilization might not seem to make sense, since the couple was obviously trying to get pregnant.  Abortion of one or more fetuses after in vitro fertilization is called “selective reduction.” As part of in vitro fertilization, typically multiple embryos are implanted in the woman’s uterus. That way, there’s a higher likelihood of having at least one live birth. But, sometimes multiple embryos survive the transfer process from the lab to the womb. The risk of health problems if these embryos live until birth is high. There are higher rates of preterm (early) delivery, low birth weight, brain problems, development problems, and many other issues if multiple babies are born at once rather than if just one baby is born at a time. “Selective reduction” is the process of aborting one or more of these fetuses so that the one fetus that makes it to birth has a higher chance of being relatively healthy. [6]

Whatever the reason that the woman may be aborting, these medications are injected to ensure that the fetus is not alive when it is born. Some women who are aborting fetuses with health problems believe that abortion is the “merciful” thing to do. They want to be sure that the fetus isn’t alive when it is born because then they would feel conflicted about trying to resuscitate it or watching it die.

Also, the Partial Birth Abortion Act of 2003 in the United States states that killing a living fetus when it has been partially delivered from the woman’s body is illegal. [7] Some abortion doctors make sure that the fetus is dead before delivery so that they don’t get in trouble for breaking this law.

What Percentage of Abortions are Intracardiac Abortions?

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) collect abortion data each year, and the results of their data collection are available online through the year 2014.[8] Abortion data since 2014 have not yet been published. States and several large cities like Washington D.C. and New York City have the option to report their data to the CDC each year or not. For 2014, California, Maryland, and New Hampshire abortion numbers were not reported. In the CDC report, abortion methods are classified as surgical or medical (medication). Exact numbers on how many of these surgical abortions were intracardiac abortions are not available because most of the states that report their data to the CDC did not provide this information.

The studies used in this article include different amounts of women who had abortions over different periods of time. One study of digoxin injection abortions included just 8 women. [9] Another study included 126 women. [10] Another study included 4,906 women who had abortions over 8 years. [11] One study of Potassium Chloride injection abortions included 192 women. Another included 239 women.[12] In one study from Britain in 2004, where abortions by type are tracked better than in the United States, about 1% of abortions were intracardiac or injectable. [13]

What happens during an Intracardiac Abortion?

The woman has blood drawn to check her blood type, and vital signs like heart rate and blood pressure taken. She is positioned on the clinic or hospital bed as if she were having a regular pregnancy ultrasound. A numbing shot is given through a small needle into her belly. Then a long, large needle with the medicine in it is put in her belly. An ultrasound is used to determine where the fetal heart is, and when the needle is in the fetal heart. The medicine is then injected, and the abortion doctor watches on the ultrasound screen until the heart stops. An ultrasound is often done again 30 minutes after the fetal heartbeat has stopped, to make sure that it is still stopped. After the fetal death, the woman may be induced or may wait up to several weeks to go into labor on her own. [14] Sometimes, she goes into labor and delivers the stillborn baby before she can get back to the hospital. If she does deliver at the hospital, sometimes it is on a bed as with a planned live birth, and other times it is into a toilet.

At what point does the baby die during the Abortion?

Typically, the baby dies within several minutes after a Potassium Chloride injection because the medication stops its heartbeat immediately. The abortionist watches the ultrasound until it shows that the heart has stopped. With Digoxin, fetal death can take hours. An ultrasound may be done periodically to check when the heart stops beating. Around 30 minutes after electrical activity stops, another ultrasound is done to confirm that the heart has not started beating again. If the heart has restarted, a repeat dose of medication may be given. [15]

What are the Side Effects of an Intracardiac Abortion?

Side effects after a Potassium Chloride injection abortion are different from a Digoxin injection abortion. Digoxin injections are not recommended as standard practice before a dilation and evacuation abortion because they don’t decrease how long the abortion takes. Side effects include vomiting, women going into labor on their own at home or other places before the scheduled dilation and evacuation, and infections inside the uterus. Digoxin cannot be given to any woman with a history of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. [16]

In women who had Potassium Chloride injected, there has been one report of a woman who suffered cardiac arrest (her heart stopped) and was successfully brought back to life. There was also a report of a woman who developed a life-threatening infection after the medicine was accidentally injected into her bloodstream instead of into the fetus’ heart. [17]

How often do Complications occur?

Complications other than vomiting occurred less than 1% of the time in women who received Digoxin injections. Vomiting occurred in around 15% of women. Complications occurred less than 1% of the time in women who received Potassium Chloride injections, but when they did occur they were very severe (see above).

As mentioned above, sometimes intracardiac injections are given before a woman is induced to go into labor. Research has shown that induction abortions can be complicated by retained placenta up to 30% of the time. Retained placenta puts the woman at significant risk for life-threatening infection. [18]

Citations:

[16] [16] Cassing Hammond MD, and Stephen Chasen MD, Management of Unintended and Abnormal Pregnancy. Ed. Paul, Lichtenberg, Borgatta, Grimes, Stubblefield and Creinin. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2009).

[18] Autry AM, Hayes EC, Jacobson GF, Kirby RS. A comparison of medical induction and dilation and evacuation for second-trimester abortion. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002; 187: 393– 397.

Is Abortion ever Medically Necessary?

Most abortions laws in the United States of America have exceptions for cases of rape, incest, and “life of the mother.” Whatever the restrictions on abortion are in the particular law, cases of rape, incest, or endangerment of the mother’s life are still legal.

Let’s examine the legal meaning of “medically necessary” abortions and whether they are the same thing as abortions for the life or health of the mother. We’ll also look at what types of health conditions fall under “medical necessity”, how often they are performed, and who pays for them. We’ll also study the pro-life response to “medically necessary” abortions. “Medically necessary” abortions are typically performed starting in the middle or late second trimester and may be performed throughout the third trimester. We’ll conclude by examining possible complications of these late-term abortions.

What is the Legal Definition of “Medically Necessary”?

Pro choice advocates claim that abortion must be legal because some abortions are not elective, and are in fact “medically necessary.” The term “medically necessary” originated in the 1940s, “to ensure that hospitals and physicians were paid for the services they performed.” [1] It was a vague catchall phrase used by insurance companies that mostly relied on physician judgment about what services were necessary for a patient’s care. Abortion rights advocates ever since Roe v Wade and Doe v Bolton in 1973 have argued that “medical necessity” is an objective standard based on medical judgment. But in reality, “medical necessity” is more nuanced because “doctors often differ in their estimation of comparative health risks and appropriate treatment.” [2]

Is “Medically Necessary” the same as “Life of the Mother”? What about “Health of the Mother”?

“Health of the Mother” and “Life of the Mother”

As we’ll see by the legal definition of maternal “health” below, “medically necessary” abortions can technically include abortions for the life of the mother or the health of the mother.

Abortions to “save the (physical) life of the mother” are recommended for a variety of maternal reasons, including the mother having preexisting heart disease or uncontrolled diabetes or cancer. Sometimes, the mother develops pregnancy complications like preeclampsia or eclampsia (toxemia of pregnancy) or chorioamnionitis. [3]

Abortions to “save the life of the mother” also may be recommended when something goes wrong with the fetus itself, as in ectopic or molar pregnancies.  Abortions for the “health of the mother” generally refer to medical conditions which cause the mother illness and varying degree of physical discomfort. One example is gestational diabetes (diabetes that develops during pregnancy and goes away when the fetus is delivered). Another example is hyperemesis gravidarum (severe nausea and vomiting during pregnancy). “Health of the mother” conditions do not endanger the mother’s life.

Doe v Bolton

“Mary Doe” in Doe v Bolton was a Georgia woman who sought an abortion at 9 weeks pregnant in 1968. “Bolton” in Doe v Bolton was Arthur Bolton, Attorney General of Georgia. Mary Doe wanted an abortion because she was financially unable to provide for another child. She also did not have custody of any of her three other children. She had been a patient of a mental hospital. Finally, she had recently been left by her husband. At that time, Georgia law allowed for an abortion only in the following cases: 1) endangerment of or serious and permanent injury to the woman’s life 2) pregnancy because of rape 3) baby “very likely” to be born with a grave mental or physical defect. [4]

The Doe v Bolton case started in a district court and went all the way to the Supreme Court. The case was decided on the same day in 1973 as Roe v Wade. Doe v Bolton set a legal precedent, or legal definition of a term that is used in other court cases on similar topics in the future. That legal precedent says that the “health” of the mother includes her physical, emotional, psychological, and familial health, and her age. This Supreme Court ruling struck down many state restrictions on abortion. [5] So, any pregnancy that could impact the mother’s physical, emotional, psychological or family health could be grounds for a “medically necessary” abortion. Likewise, presumably a woman who is older than 35 years or younger than, say, 18, could also have grounds for a “medically necessary” abortion.

How often are Abortions performed for “Medical Necessity”?

The Alan Guttmacher Institute has published several studies on reasons that women have abortions. One of these was published in 1987, and another was from 2004. In both studies, “mother has health problems” was cited in 2.8-4% of cases. “Mother has health problems” is another term for “medically necessary” cases and includes both life-threatening and non-life-threatening cases. So, the total of abortions done for the life of the mother is, at the most, less than 4% of all abortions. The most recent abortion statistics are from 2014, and there were 652,639 abortions that year. At the most, then, somewhere between 13,053 and 26,106 abortions were for “medically necessary” reasons, and a portion of these would have been for “life of the mother” cases. [6]

Are Tax Dollars used for “Medically Necessary” Abortions?

Medicare and Medicaid

Tax dollars pay for both Medicare and Medicaid. [7] Medicare is a federal health insurance program available to all American citizens over age 65. Tax payer money goes directly to Medicare at the federal level. Every American citizen who gets a paycheck pays a small percentage of their earnings directly into Medicare. Since Medicare covers Americans over age 65, there is no argument about it covering abortions since all women participants are past child-bearing age.

Medicaid is a health insurance program for poor Americans. Medicaid has both federal and state branches. Each state has its own office and its own rules for eligibility. Some funds from incomes taxes go to Medicaid at the state level. Other federal funds support Medicaid at the national level. [8]

Hyde Amendment

The Hyde Amendment states that federal Medicaid funds cannot be used for abortions except in cases of rape, incest, or the mother’s life being endangered. [9] The Hyde Amendment was originally passed in 1976. Every president since then has either repealed or reinstated the Hyde Amendment depending on his political affiliation.

In 17 states, only state Medicaid money is used to pay for medically necessary abortions. No federal funds are used in these states. In the other 33 states of the 50 states total, federal Medicaid funds are used for some “medically necessary” abortions. [10]

A research study of 25 abortion providers in 6 different states found that in many cases Medicaid did not reimburse them for abortions that qualified under the Hyde Amendment. Many providers reported that going through so much paperwork only to be turned down was a waste of their time. In the few cases where they did actually get reimbursed, the amount of money was so small that it was not worth their time to keep applying. [11]

What is the Pro-life Response to “Medically Necessary” Abortions?       

Moral Principle of Double Effect

Pro-lifers respond that the goal of medical interventions should always be to save life. In select rare cases, the fetus may die as a result of interventions to save the mother’s life. However, the goal is never to purposefully end the life of the fetus. [12] This concept is called the moral principle of double effect, a good action is done that has a foreseen bad side-effect. [13] So, in the case of a woman with uterine cancer, she might have to have her uterus removed to get rid of the cancer. The fetus would unfortunately die as a result, but the woman was helped as a result of the uterus being removed and not because of the fetus’ death.

Moral Principle of Double Effect and Flight 93

Let’s take another example of the moral principle of double effect. Recall the passengers of Flight 93 on September 11, 2001? When they learned that the plane had been hijacked, they made a decision to resist and to prevent the plane from hitting the hijackers’ target. Their goal was to save lives, even though they knew that in the process they would lose their own. So, the goal was to save lives, even though they foresaw that the bad side effect would be their own deaths. Each passenger was granted the Congressional Medal of Honor for this bravery. Pro-lifers abide by this same principle when a mother’s life is in danger.

The Dublin Declaration

The Dublin Declaration on Maternal Healthcare was written in 2012 and signed by over 1,000 Irish obstetricians and other healthcare professionals. It states that:” direct abortion – the purposeful destruction of the unborn child – is not medically necessary to save the life of a woman. We uphold that there is a fundamental difference between abortion, and necessary medical treatments that are carried out to save the life of the mother, even if such treatment results in the loss of life of her unborn child. We confirm that the prohibition of abortion does not affect, in any way, the availability of optimal care to pregnant women.” [14]

What about Abortion for Maternal Health Conditions?

Some medical problems may be exacerbated by pregnancy. These include preexisting heart disease and diabetes and a known or new diagnosis of cancer. Typically, close monitoring and treatment of heart disease or diabetes by a maternal-fetal medicine specialist, also known as a high-risk pregnancy doctor, can prevent threats to the mother’s life. In rare cases where the mother’s life is in danger the longer that the pregnancy continues, the fetus can be delivered early either through induction of labor or a cesarean section.

Generally, a fetus is viable, or can live outside the womb with medical assistance, starting around 24 weeks (less than 6 months pregnant). If a woman has cancer and needs treatment, the treatment could either be started promptly and potential birth defects be managed after delivery, or treatment could be delayed until an early delivery is achieved. Either of these options ensures effective treatment of the woman’s health conditions, and respects the life of the fetus to the fullest extent possible.

Occasionally, a mother decides to forego medical treatment altogether, to give her baby the best chance at a healthy life. While this is not necessary from an ethical standpoint, it is consistent with mothers throughout history who have given their lives to save their children. Mothers have run into burning buildings to rescue children, carried them on their backs through flooded waters, and jumped into dangerous waters to save a drowning child. [15]

What about Abortion for Preeclampsia or Eclampsia?

Preeclampsia, also known as toxemia of pregnancy, develops after 20 weeks of pregnancy and involves high blood pressure and oftentimes kidney, liver, heart, lung, or eye damage. Preeclampsia plus seizures is considered eclampsia. Uncontrolled high blood pressure can lead to seizures, stroke, and even death of the mother. Liver, kidney, heart, or lung failure can also be life-threatening.

Once symptoms start, they do not generally go away until the pregnancy ends. Typically, goals of treatment include outpatient medications to control blood pressure, and frequent doctor’s office monitoring of fetal wellbeing. If symptoms are severe enough, the mother has to be hospitalized until delivery. She is often on intravenous (IV) medication to prevent seizures.

Once a fetus reaches the age of viability, labor can be induced or a Cesarean section performed. If the mother progresses to eclampsia before 24 weeks, the fetus must be delivered regardless. This would not be considered a direct abortion because the goal would be to end the pregnancy by delivery, not to kill the fetus. The preterm fetus would not be expected to live outside the womb, but its death would not be directly caused. [16]

Preeclampsia occurs in between 5 and 8 pregnancies out of 100, but progression to life-threatening eclampsia is rare with proper treatment. [17]

What about Savita Halappanavar?

In 2012, a woman named Savita Halappanavar who was living in Ireland went into the hospital at 17 weeks pregnant with symptoms of a miscarriage. Her situation was unusual from the beginning, as only 1-2% of all miscarriages occur during the second trimester.

Unfortunately, the miscarriage was related to an uterine infection called chorioamnionitis, which was not diagnosed and treated appropriately and in a reasonable timeframe. Chorioamnionitis is typically treated by intravenous (IV) antibiotics, and spontaneous miscarriage of the fetus often occurs. If spontaneous miscarriage does not occur, the fetus may have to be delivered regardless of gestational age because infection in the fetus can progress to life-threatening systemic infection via the mother’s bloodstream. This would not be considered a direct abortion because the intent was to deliver the pregnancy, though the fetus was not expected to survive due to prematurity.

By the time that the spontaneous miscarriage completed, Savita’s untreated infection had progressed to her entire bloodstream and caused organ damage, a condition known as sepsis. Her sepsis worsened to severe sepsis and then septic shock. Her heart stopped, causing her death, seven days after she entered the hospital.

Abortion advocates called for a repeal of Ireland’s abortion laws. They argue that if Savita had received an abortion then she would not have developed sepsis. Unfortunately, the facts lead to a different conclusion in Savita’s case. The investigation into her death found that the real problems were that she was not monitored closely enough, that the fetus’ infection was not treated appropriately, and that her own possibility of infection was not anticipated correctly.  By the time her treatment team realized just how sick she was and responded, it was too late. [18]

What about Abortion for Ectopic Pregnancies?

An ectopic pregnancy occurs when the embryo implants somewhere other than the woman’s uterus, oftentimes in a Fallopian tube. Because the Fallopian tube is small, the pressure of the growing embryo on the Fallopian tube can cause it to rupture. Fallopian tube rupture can lead to life-threatening complications.  Ectopic pregnancy affects about 1 in 50 to 1 in 100 pregnancies. [19]

Ectopic pregnancies can be treated in three ways. Two of these ways arguably constitute a direct abortion. Methotrexate is considered a direct abortion because it stops production of the trophoblast. The trophoblast is produced by the embryo and normally develops into the placenta. [20] Salpinogotomy is also considered a direct abortion. The Fallopian tube is sliced open and the embryo is scooped out and dies. The woman’s Fallopian tube may still function correctly in the future.

Salpingectomy is not considered direct abortion because the whole diseased section of the Fallopian tube is removed. The death of the embryo inside is an undesired but expected side effect. Because a section of the Fallopian tube is removed, that tube will not be functional in the future. Having only one functional Fallopian tube reduces the woman’s fertility. [21]

What about Abortion for Hydatidiform Mole or Molar Pregnancies?

A hydatidiform mole, also known as a molar pregnancy, may be a partial (or incomplete) molar pregnancy or a complete molar pregnancy. Something goes wrong during fertilization of the egg by the sperm. The placenta develops abnormally and the fetus develops only partially (partial molar pregnancy) or not at all (complete molar pregnancy). In rare cases, the placental mass that develops from the molar pregnancy may become cancerous. This cancer can be life threatening, but is generally treated successfully with chemotherapy. [22]

Complete molar pregnancies occur in about 1 in 1,000 pregnancies. [23] Incomplete or partial molar pregnancies occur less frequently. If the embryo does not develop, a dilation & curettage procedure is recommended to clean out the uterus. This would not be considered a direct abortion because there is no life there. If an embryo does partially develop, the woman will typically miscarry.

What kind of Complications can occur during “Medically Necessary” Abortions in the 2nd or 3rd Trimester?

Late term abortions, or abortions performed in the second half of the second trimester or anytime during the third trimester, require several days to dilate the cervix. Risk of death from abortion increases by 38% each week starting in the second trimester. [24]  Serious, documented risks for late-term abortions include:

  • Cervical injury
  • Uterine perforation
  • Infection (may become life-threatening)
  • Life-threatening hemorrhage (bleeding)
  • Uterine rupture
  • Incomplete abortion due to body parts or placenta or other tissue left inside the uterus
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (life-threatening blood clotting and bleeding)
  • Anesthesia-complications such as respiratory depression[25]

So, is abortion ever medically necessary?

We see from the examples above that direct abortion is never medically necessary to save the life of the mother. In rare cases where the mother’s life is in danger if the pregnancy continues, the baby can be delivered via induction or cesarean section. If the baby has not yet reached the age of viability, the mother and her medical team may anticipate the baby’s death after delivery as an unintended consequence. In these unfortunate cases, perinatal hospice programs can help facilitate and guide the woman and her family through the bonding and grieving process. This approach respects the lives of both the mother and her child. [26]

 

Abortion Risks, Side Effects and Complications

We’ve all heard the mantra ‘safe, legal and rare’ from abortion advocates. In this article, we look into the medical research on side effects, complications and injuries that can happen from each type of abortion. Here you will learn the facts and statistics about the risks of abortion procedures. This often overlooked topic is very important to women’s health.

How often do complications occur from abortions?

The short answer to this question is that we really do not know how often complications occur after abortions. Dr Lenora Berning, a physician from North Carolina, sums up the situation this way: “(Complications of U.S. abortions) are under-reported because there is no accurate process in place today to quantify the harmful repercussions of abortion. The abortion industry has successfully kept abortion and abortionists free from the type of review, regulation, and accountability that is an integral part of the rest of the medical profession”. [1]

A 2017 study from Sweden found that from 2008 to 2015, first trimester abortion complication rates actually doubled, from 4.2% in 2008 to 8.2% in 2015. [2] According to the study authors, “The cause of this (doubling) is unknown but it may be associated with a shift from hospital to home medical abortions.” Home medical abortions refer to abortion by pill or medication abortions, and have been on the rise in the United States especially in the last 10 years. Between 2001 and 2014, medication abortions went from 6% to 31% of all non-hospital abortions, and represented almost half of abortions before 9 weeks gestation. [3]

Where do maternal mortality rates and abortion mortality rates come from?

According to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the maternal mortality rate is: “the annual number of female deaths per 100,000 live births from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management (excluding accidental or incidental causes).” [4] Abortion mortality rate is a general, not a technical, term for the annual number of maternal deaths due to abortion-related complications, whether during or directly after the procedure, or in the weeks and months following. Different studies quantify the abortion mortality rate differently. Many times, death certificates are assumed to be the definitive source for determining abortion mortality rates. However, research has shown that death certificates identified a current or recent pregnancy only about 50% of the time. [5]

Maternal mortality rates numbers come from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System. Abortion mortality rates numbers come from the CDC’s Abortion Mortality Surveillance System. [6]

What’s wrong with the national reporting system for abortion statistics?

First, the number of abortions done in the United States each year is an estimate, not an actual, accurate number. This is because only two national organizations collect abortion data, and reporting to both is voluntary. These two national organizations are the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a federal government agency, and the Alan Guttmacher Institute, formerly the research arm of Planned Parenthood. States are not mandated to provide their numbers to either organization, though the Alan Guttmacher Institute’s statistics are considered the most accurate.

The CDC’s most recent abortion statistics report, based on data from 2014, can hardly be called representative of the total number of abortions done in that year. One of the reasons this number cannot be accurate is because California has not provided their numbers to the Centers for Disease Control for over 15 years. The CDC report also excluded numbers from Maryland and New Hampshire.

The Alan Guttmacher Institute estimated that about 157,350 abortions were performed in California in 2014, about 17% of all abortions nationally. [6] They estimated around 2,540 abortions that same year in New Hampshire, and around 28,140 in Maryland for a total of 3.3% of the national total. So, these three states not reporting their data to the CDC represents under-reporting of abortion rates by at least 21%.

What’s wrong with the national reporting system for abortion-related complications, injuries, and deaths?

The biggest problem with the national reporting system for abortion-related complications, injuries, and deaths in the United States is that reporting is not mandatory. Only 27 states require abortion providers to report injuries and complications from abortion to the CDC’s Abortion Mortality Surveillance System. [7] In studies from Denmark, Finland, and California that included multiple information sources rather than just death certificates, women who aborted were more likely to die than women who had a live birth. [8][9]

Other problems include deaths due to abortion being reported instead as due to the complication. For example, the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases (ICD) medical coding for a woman who died from an abortion-related infection would be coded as dying from infection, not from the abortion. Also, many women who experience abortion-related complications will go to the emergency room for care, not back to the abortion clinic. Hospital staff may or may not ever find out that the woman had an abortion. Additionally, state death reporting does not usually trace suicide back to reasons like abortion. [10]

The World Health Organization recognizes that determining abortion-related deaths may be difficult because “this requires information about deaths among women of reproductive age, pregnancy status at or near the time of death, and the medical cause of death. All three components can be difficult to measure accurately, particularly in settings where deaths are not comprehensively reported through the vital registration system and where there is no medical certification of cause of death.” [11]

Surgical Abortion Complications:

Surgical abortion complications generally fall into one of three categories. The first category is uterine complications. Uterine complications come from either incomplete removal of some part of the fetus, amniotic sac, placenta, or other tissue, or from uterine atony (failure of the uterus to contract after the abortion) causing hemorrhage (large amount of bleeding). The second category is infection. The third category is injury because of medical instruments used during the abortion. [12]

Uterine Complications:

Incomplete or Failed Abortion

  • Retained fetal body parts or tissue, placenta, or amniotic sac can lead to pain and infection of the uterus, and may require hospitalization.

Uterine Atony

  • Hematometra is a collection of blood inside the uterus that causes symptoms such as low blood pressure and pain. [13]
  • Hemorrhage is an abnormal loss of blood that can become life-threatening, requiring hospitalization, blood transfusions, or even surgery to stop the bleeding. [14]
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC)  is a life-threatening blood clotting and bleeding disorder. DIC is also a complication of Amniotic Fluid Embolism (listed below).

Infection

  • Incomplete or failed abortion (see above) can lead to life-threatening infection.
  • Infection of the uterine lining is typically caused by a combination of normal vaginal bacteria and an active sexually transmitted infection traveling up through the dilated cervix. [15]
  • Medication abortion or abortion pill medication (Mifepristone and Misoprostol) has been associated with a very rare but deadly infection by a bacteria called Clostridium Sordelli. All but one woman who have developed this infection have died from it. [16]

Injury

  • Uterine perforation, or puncturing a hole in the side of the uterus, may lead to hemorrhage.
  • Injury to the uterus can lead to preterm labor or miscarriage in future pregnancies A weakened or damaged cervix may lead to preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes (bag of waters breaking) in future pregnancies. [17] Either one of these conditions can end in miscarriage or in the baby being born before 37 weeks and having brain, lung, heart, and other problems.
  • Bladder injury can occur due to perforating the uterus. [18]
  • Amniotic fluid embolism occurs when amniotic fluid from the fetal amniotic sac enters the mother’s blood stream and causes vital organs to shut down. [19] Once an AFE occurs, death is almost always inevitable.
  • Injury to the bowels or other organs may occur from the curette (sharp, scraping tool used to remove tissue and fetal body parts) breaking through the wall of the uterus. [20] Bowel injury may impact the large intestines or small intestines.
  • Asherman syndrome is scarring of the uterine lining or in the cervical canal. Asherman Syndrome can cause infertility, miscarriage, or preterm delivery in future pregnancies.

Some general notes about surgical abortion complications include:

  • Non-white women undergoing surgical abortion are more than twice as likely as white women to die from the procedure.
  • Obese women undergoing surgical abortions are more likely to have greater blood loss and the abortion takes longer.

Several other complications can occur after an abortion due to changes in the woman’s blood circulation during pregnancy. These include deep venous thrombosis (DVT), which is a blood clot in one of the major veins of the body, often a leg vein. Blood-thinner medication has to be given in order to prevent the clot from causing a stroke or heart attack or pulmonary embolism (blood clot in the lungs). Pulmonary embolism sometimes develops on its own, without breaking off from a DVT. Pulmonary embolism can cause sudden death if it is large enough. [21]

Medication Abortion Complications:

  • Pain, may be severe [22]
  • Cramping
  • Bleeding
  • Uterine rupture, or the whole uterus ripping apart, causing life-threatening bleeding and possibly death. This is an emergency. Risk of uterine rupture is generally low in first trimester abortions, but still exists for women with uterine scars already, like from a previous Cesarean section. [23] Women generally deliver at home after taking pills, where there would be no access to specialized medical care if uterine rupture occurred.
  • (as mentioned above) Medication abortion or abortion pill medication (Mifepristone and Misoprostol) has been associated with a very rare but deadly infection by a bacteria called Clostridium Sordelli. All but one woman who have developed this infection have died from it. [24]
  • In total, 22 women who took the abortion pill have died since 2000. 2 of those women died from ruptured ectopic pregnancies, even though the FDA insert says that no woman with an ectopic pregnancy should take RU-486.

Anesthesia-related Complications:

Finally, general anesthesia may be used in a small percentage of cases. General anesthesia has its own set of side effects. General anesthesia affects the whole body and requires being on a breathing machine. [25] In contrast, local anesthesia, which is much more common during abortions, refers to temporary relief of pain in a specific area. Complications of general anesthesia may include: low blood pressure requiring special intravenous (IV) medications, dizziness or confusion, nausea and vomiting, sore throat from the breathing tube, and, in very rare cases, a life-threatening condition called [26] malignant hyperthermia. [27]

“Conscious” sedation or “IV conscious sedation” is another method of pain relief and relaxation that has some complications. Medicine given through an intravenous (IV) line that takes away pain and relaxes the patient. It may also cause amnesia, or inability to remember the events of the actual abortion procedure. The goal is for the woman to be in a twilight-zone state, able to move arms and legs but relaxed and comfortable. Risks of sedation include getting too much sedation and needing oxygen or extra breathing support and abnormally low blood pressure requiring specialized medication and hospitalization. Every woman is different, and every woman responds to sedation medications differently. [28]

Have women ever died from an abortion?

As mentioned above, 22 women who took the abortion pill have died since 2000. Women who have had surgical abortions have died also. Just to name a few: Antonesha Ross died on May 8, 2009 in Chicago of untreated respiratory complications that should have prevented her from having an abortion in the first place. Ying Chen died on July 28, 2009 in California after an anesthesia reaction that went unnoticed. Karnamaya Mongar died in November of 2009 in Philadelphia after unlicensed personnel administered her sedation medications and oversedated her. Jennifer Morbelli died on February 7, 2013 in Maryland because of an amniotic fluid embolism. Tonya Reeves hemorrhaged to death in Chicago in July of 2012. On February 13, 2013, Maria Santiago died in Maryland of sedation complications. Given the reasons above for underreporting, these cases represent an unknown but small fraction of actual complications or deaths related to abortion. [29]

Late-Term Abortion Complications

While only about 10–15% of all abortions are done in the second trimester, they are responsible for roughly two-thirds or 66% of all major complications. [20][21] Risk of death from second trimester abortion is over 20 times higher than from first trimester abortion. [22] Risk of death from abortion increases by 38% each week starting in the second trimester. [23]

Abortion is not as safe as it may seem when judged by political rhetoric. It’s important to hear these warnings of the risks, side effects and complications related to abortion procedures.

 Citations:

3. Jones RK and Jerman J, Abortion incidence and service availability in the United States, 2014, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 2017, 49(1):17–27, doi:10.1363/psrh.12015.

5. Horon, I. (2005). Under-reporting of maternal deaths on death certificates and the magnitude of the problem of maternal mortality. American Journal of Public Health, 2005, 95, 479

11. World Health Organization (2004). Maternal Mortality in 2000-Estimates by UNICEF, WHO, & UNFPA. Geneva, Switzerlincand: Department of Reproductive Health & Research.

13. Cassing Hammond MD, and Stephen Chasen MD, “Dilation and Evacuation,” Management of Unintended and Abnormal Pregnancy. Ed. Paul, Lichtenberg, Borgatta, Grimes, Stubblefield and Creinin. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2009), 230.

14. Cassing Hammond MD, and Stephen Chasen MD, “Dilation and Evacuation,” Management of Unintended and Abnormal Pregnancy. Ed. Paul, Lichtenberg, Borgatta, Grimes, Stubblefield and Creinin. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2009), 230-231.

19. Cassing Hammond MD, and Stephen Chasen MD, “Dilation and Evacuation,” Management of Unintended and Abnormal Pregnancy. Ed. Paul, Lichtenberg, Borgatta, Grimes, Stubblefield and Creinin. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2009), 244-264.

21. Cassing Hammond MD, and Stephen Chasen MD, “Dilation and Evacuation,” Management of Unintended and Abnormal Pregnancy. Ed. Paul, Lichtenberg, Borgatta, Grimes, Stubblefield and Creinin. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2009),

23. Cassing Hammond MD, and Stephen Chasen MD, “Dilation and Evacuation,” Management of Unintended and Abnormal Pregnancy. Ed. Paul, Lichtenberg, Borgatta, Grimes, Stubblefield and Creinin. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2009), 128.

28. Cassing Hammond MD, and Stephen Chasen MD, “Dilation and Evacuation,” Management of Unintended and Abnormal Pregnancy. Ed. Paul, Lichtenberg, Borgatta, Grimes, Stubblefield and Creinin. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2009), 92-98.

Pro-Life and Pro-Choice Rhetoric

Pro-Life, Pro-Choice, Abortion, Rhetoric, Language, Framing, Debate, Media, Bias

A large number of people do not understand how phrasing, word choice and rhetoric affect the thought process of those discussing abortion. The amount of rhetoric in this debate can be mind boggling. Both sides have a whole different set of vocabulary that frames their views. Many times this can lead to people talking past each other completely because they have not agreed on how they define the terms that they use.

This can be quite counter-productive for abortion discussion and dialogue.

What Pro-Choice People Say

With the caveat that not all pro-choice people are the same and that they do not all have bad motives, here are some ways that rhetoric is employed by the pro-choice movement.

In the media you will be hard pressed to find a source that uses the name that pro-lifers use for themselves. Rather than calling them pro-life they will refer to them as “anti-abortion” or “abortion foes.” Pro-lifers are rarely referred to in a positive light in pro-choice rhetoric. It’s always the negative form.

As a side note, who uses the term ‘foe’ these days? Seriously… For how many other issues is one side of the debate referred to as a foe? We haven’t found any, but if you do please comment below!

The bottom line is no one wants to be ‘anti’ or a ‘foe’ and so this subconsciously biases readers a certain way.

Of course many people accuse pro-lifers of only being anti-abortion. And frankly, in some cases, that’s probably true. But if you really know the movement at all you would recognize that the vast majority of active pro-lifers are just that. Pro-Life.

The worst rhetorical maneuver used by the pro-choice movement is to dehumanize and denigrate the life of the fetus and pregnancy.

For example, the pro-choice side often refers to pregnancy as a condition, while the pro-life life side views it as a natural process. Referring to a pregnancy as a condition removes the idea of it being long-term or natural. Instead it’s seen as a problem that can be taken care of with a medical procedure.

Most people are also familiar with the dehumanizing language used to refer to the preborn human. Clump of cells, tissue, product of conception, etc. These are all ways of talking about a human being in order to dehumanize and completely remove the humanity of the fetal human growing in the womb.

We could go on and on about ways that abortion is nomalized through language.

What Pro-Life People Say

A key strategy of the pro-life movement is to humanize the child. For example, a common term used by pro-lifers is the word preborn. It is used because it emphasizes the ongoing development of the fetus in the womb. It shows that there is a process, which involves a natural progression from when the baby lives inside the womb to when the baby lives outside the womb.

The pro-life movement also refers to pregnant women as mothers. They describe them in this way to emphasize that the preborn child is, in fact, a child. A baby is not just an item that you should be able to throw away. The mother nurturing the preborn before birth is very similar to the nurturing of the baby following birth.

Pro-Lifers also make an effort to use the phrase “committing an abortion”, rather than performing an abortion when talking about abortionists. This reveals that instead of being a simple procedure that will enable a woman to carry on with her life, it is a permanent, serious action that could lead to lifelong suffering and can never be undone.

Referring to a baby in the womb as a fetus is perfectly fine with most pro-lifers, because that is the proper medical term. What a person should be aware of is what words they use when referring to the sex of the fetus. When someone does not know the sex of a fetus, they often refer to is as an “it.” Instead, one should refer to a fetus as him or her; essentially recognizing his or her humanity.

Rhetoric is very important when talking about abortion. Using different terms can result in a very different message.

Abortion Around the World

Abortion, Worldwide, Pregnancy, Countries, Legal Abortion, Pro-Life, Pro-Choice

Abortion practice, abortion law and attitudes towards abortion all vary throughout the world. Abortion is a global problem and here we will take a look at some of the issues from an international perspective. It would be nearly impossible to be completely exhaustive as abortion is a very complex issue even on a local level. However, we plan to continue to update this article over time so that it encompasses a good understanding of abortion worldwide.

Global Abortion Rates by Country

The abortion rate here is defined as the number of abortions per 1000 women of child bearing age (15-44 years old). International abortion statistics are even harder to collect and verify than are domestic. Remember this as you look at these numbers. There are many countries missing and the data is incomplete. This is, however the best we have as they do come from the United Nations.

Abortion statistics in Australia

Australian abortion rate: 14.2 – 2010

Abortion Statistics in Austria

Austrian abortion rate: 1.4 – 2000

Abortion Statistics in Belgium

Belgian abortion rate: 9.2 – 2009

Abortion Statistics in Brazil

Brazilian abortion rate: 0.0 – 2003

Abortion Statistics in Canada

Canadian abortion rate: 13.7 – 2009

Abortion Statistics in Chile

Chilean abortion rate: 0.5 – 2005

Abortion Statistics in China

Chinese abortion rate: 19.2 – 2009

Abortion Statistics in Costa Rica

Costa Rican abortion rate: 6.9 – 2010

Abortion Statistics in Cuba

Cuban abortion rate: 28.9 – 2010

Abortion Statistics in Denmark

Denmark abortion rate: 15.2 – 2010

Abortion Statistics in France

French abortion rate: 17.4 (2009)

Abortion Statistics in Republic of Georgia

Georgian abortion rate: 26.5 – 2010

Abortion Statistics in Germany

German abortion rate: 6.1 – 2010

Abortion Statistics in Greece

Greek abortion rate: 7.2 – 2007

Abortion Statistics in Hungary

Hungarian abortion rate: 19.4 – 2010

Abortion Statistics in India

Indian abortion rate: 2.2 – 2010

Abortion Statistics in Israel

Israeli abortion rate: 12.5 – 2010

Abortion Statistics in Italy

Italian abortion rate: 10.0 – 2010

Abortion Statistics in Japan

Japanese abortion rate: 9.2 – 2009

Abortion Statistics in Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan abortion rate: 27.4 – 2010

Abortion Statistics in Netherlands

Netherlands abortion rate: 9.7 – 2010

Abortion Statistics in New Zealand

New Zealand abortion rate: 18.2 – 2010

Abortion Statistics in Norway

Norway abortion rates: 16.2 – 2010

Abortion Statistics in Poland

Polish abortion rate: 0.1 – 2010

Abortion Statistics in Portugal

Portuguese abortion rate: 9.0 – 2010

Abortion Statistics in Romania

Romanian abortion rate: 21.3 – 2010

Abortion Statistics in Russia

Russian abortion rate: 37.4 – 2010

Abortion Statistics in Spain

Spanish abortion rate: 11.7 – 2010

Abortion Statistics in Sweden

Swedish abortion rate: 20.8 – 2010

Abortion Statistics in Switzerland

Swiss abortion rate: 7.1 – 2010

Abortion Statistics in United Kingdom

British abortion rake: 14.2 – 2010

Abortion Statistics in United States

United States abortion rate: 19.6 (2008)

Here we’re adding in the United States just for reference for a more comprehensive look at American abortion statistics go here.

(The above statistics come from the UN, Guttmacher Institute, the lancet)

International Legality of Abortion and Abortion Policy

There are different levels of legality of abortion around the world–countries obviously have varying standards and laws due to many different factors.

These laws are constantly changing so we will discuss some broad strokes here.

For example, countries that are communist or were previously communist generally have the most liberal laws with regards to abortion though this trend is broken by Poland [1]. For decades the soviet union was the most permissive, for example.

Russia, China, Japan and India have particularly permissive laws as well.

Countries with more moderate laws include Great Britain, Sweden, and Scandinavia, which allow abortions for either medical or mental health reasons [3]. Much of Europe is actually more restrictive on abortion that the United States.

Finally, nations that restrict abortions include many nations in the Middle East, Asia and Latin America. Despite these restrictions, approximately 20%-50% of all pregnancies in Latin America end in abortion [4].

Panama, Bolivia, Haiti, Colombia, Thailand and Indonesia have banned abortion outright. Nations with a large Catholic population (whose culture especially values and respects human life) also seem to have a large influence in making abortion illegal [5].

Despite its illegality, there are many instances in which abortion still occurs behind closed doors. This highlights the important role of enforcement of abortion laws. Many people focus only on what the law says but not how it is actually enforced in practice. However, that’s still not enough.

Instead of focusing solely on the legality of abortion, we should turn our attention primarily to how we can better support women to make good decisions and help them care for their children when they might find themselves in difficult situations.

Abortion Policy in Mexico

Abortion, Mexico, Policy, Exceptions, Restrictions, Regulations, Rape, Pro-Life, Pro-Choice

While much of the pro-life movement in America operates on a local, grassroots level, a statewide, or nationally, it is also very important for pro-life Americans to be concerned with the lives of preborn babies in other neighboring countries.

For example, one country that is very close to America geographically and heavily affected by American policies is Mexico.

As of today, abortion is generally illegal throughout most of Mexico, although there are exceptions made in some locations [6]. In places where exceptions are allowed, they are for cases that involve rape or severe fetal deformity.

However, in Mexico City, abortion restrictions are much less strict.

This is because lawmakers in Mexico, in 2007, passed a bill to allow abortions during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy [7]. Although this presents a huge step backwards in human rights, there is still a great deal of hope for this legislation to be overturned.

As in America, a majority of citizens in Mexico are very much against legalized abortion.

Abortion in Russia

Women, Abortion, Russia, Worldwide, Abortion Rate, Fertility Rate, Birth Control, Contraception

The abortion problem is so widespread that it affects all corners of the world. Each year, fifty-five million lives are taken by abortion throughout the world [8].

In fact, it appears the problem is getting even worse. Between the years 1998 and 2007, 16 countries liberalized their laws to allow for abortions to be performed in more situations [9].

Russia was the first country to legalize abortion in 1920. Now, it records more than seven million abortions each year—one of the largest numbers in the whole world. While the Soviet Union was intact, abortion was the main form of birth control and way to manage an unwanted pregnancy [10].

Furthermore, the fertility rate is approximately 1.4 child per woman, which is significantly less than the 2.1 needed to maintain the current population [11].

In 2004, the United Nations found that Russia had the highest abortion rate out of any country in the world, standing at 53.7 per 100 women [12].

As of today, the United States records well over a million abortions each year [13].

No one is under the impression that ending abortion will be an easy task. However, that is not a reason to simply give up the fight. Through dedication, persistence, and promoting the cause worldwide, we can see an end to abortion within our lifetime.

Abortion in Developing Countries

One way in which pro-choice advocates have tried to justify abortions is to claim that those living in poverty will not be able to afford having children.

One of the many implications of this is that developed countries can be expected to have an abortion rate lower than that of developing countries. The wealthier the nation, the less demand for abortion.

At first glance, this does appear to be the case. Most abortions occur in developing countries—35 million annually, compared with seven million in developed countries [14].

However, what is often not said is that the rate of abortions between the developing and developed countries is almost exactly the same. What the numbers above (which show that there are millions more abortions in developing countries) do not report is that the population of people in developing countries is far higher than for developed countries.

Developing countries account for about 5 billion people, while only 1 billion people live in developed countries.

These numbers inflated, misrepresenting the rates of abortion throughout the world.

In developed countries, there are 26 abortions per 1,000 women. In developing countries there are 29 abortions per 1,000 women [15].

There are numerous reasons that developing countries might have slightly higher rates of abortions. Poverty, government regulations and a lack of education may all be contributing factors.

Abortion Continues to Take the Life of Every 1 in 5 People Worldwide

 

One interesting piece of news that you may have heard is that the number of induced, surgical abortions worldwide has been on the decline.

For example, between 1995 and 2003 the number of abortions went from nearly 46 million to approximately 42 million. This means that as of today about one in five pregnancies worldwide end in abortion [16].

However, just because surgical abortions are on the decline does not necessarily mean that the total number of abortions is.

Instead, women are presented with less traditional forms of abortion.

Although prevention might be one cause for the decreased numbers, one of the most probable reasons for the decrease is access to the RU-486 abortion medication, which allows women to terminate their pregnancy within the first few weeks without having to undergo a costly and invasive procedure [17].

As mentioned before, one in five pregnancies throughout the world still end in abortion. Since it is so widespread, it affects billions of people each year. This makes it clear that abortion is not a social problem that will simply disappear without a fight.

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References

[1] Time Magazine (U.S.). (1973). Time Magazine, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,906898,00.html

[2] Ibid.

[3] Ibid.

[4] Ibid.

[5] Ibid.

[6] BBC News. (2007). “Abortion Legalised in Mexico City .” BBC News. N.p., 25 Apr 2007. Web. 21 Jul 2011. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6586959.stm

[7] Ibid

[8] Hammond, Peter. (2003). Pro-Life Abortion: the Facts. http://www.christianaction.org.za/articles/abortion.htm

[9] Guttmacher Institute. (2011). “Facts on Induced Abortion Worldwide.” http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/fb_IAW.html

[10]Associated Press. (2011). Russia’s Church, Lawmakers want to Limit Abortion. USA Today.

[11] Ibid.

[12] Ibid.

[13] Hammond 2003

[14] Guttmacher Institute. (2011). “Facts on Induced Abortion Worldwide.” http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/fb_IAW.html

[15] Ibid

[16] Guttmacher Institute. (2011). “Facts on Induced Abortion Worldwide.” http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/fb_IAW.html

[17] New York Times. (2008). Behind the Abortion Decline http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/26/opinion/26sat2.html

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Image Originally From Centre for Reproductive Rights

Image from www.gojoewesley.com

Image from www.theologhia.wordpress.com

Sex-Selective Abortions: 160 Million and Counting

Abortion, Women, Sexism, Population Control, Gender Ratio, Pro-Life, Pro-Choice

Gendercide: In places such as “India, China, and elsewhere in the developing world,” the increasing prevalence of sex-selective abortions has resulted in very significantly off balance sex ratios. It was estimated that more than 100 million women were “missing” in 1990, and that number today is thought to be 160 million.

This is obviously ironic since the abortion advocate normally proclaims abortion as an instrument of empowerment for women. While abortion hurts women in many ways, sex-selective abortion is probably the single most clear cut way. Women are so devalued that their lives can be disposed of in the hopes of conceiving a boy in the future.

This poses an embarrassing and awkward problem for the pro-choice feminist who far too often have gotten away with trying to rationalize abortion by saying it empowers women.

What about these (very young) women? How are they empowered?

Not only that, but where are the pro-choice feminists coming out to challenge and protest this grotesque practice?

There are many pro-life organizations out there trying to educate people on the reality of gender based abortion. However, the most effective and prominent is probably All Girls Allowed.  They are specifically focused on China and their population control laws that combine with a culture that values boys over girls. This, of course, has devastating affects.

Increase in Abuse of Women

According to Wikipedia: “Some scholars argue that as the proportion of women to men decreases globally, there will be an increase in trafficking and sex work (both forced and self-elected), as many people will be willing to do more to obtain a sexual partner (Junhong 2001). Already, there are reports of women from Vietnam, Myanmar, and North Korea systematically trafficked to mainland China and Taiwan and sold into forced marriages. Moreover, Ullman and Fidell (1989) suggested that pornography and sex-related crimes of violence (i.e., rape and molestation) would also increase with an increasing sex ratio.”[wikipedia]

This killing of very young girls isn’t just happening in the womb. In many places that are unable to determine gender before birth, female infanticide is also widely practiced.

Sex Selective Abortion in Around the World

In the United States, we often hear that those who are in favor of access to abortion want to make abortions safe, legal, and rare. There are some who even try to promote it as a fundamental women’s right, despite the wide body of evidence suggesting that most abortions are coerced and that abortion itself results in great harm to women.

Yet, in some countries, there is no such attempt to justify abortion in this manner. For example, individuals in some countries outright admit that they use abortion to manage the population or skew the natural gender ratio.

Tens of millions of children, mostly girls, have been aborted only because of their gender [2]. This is especially rampant in Asian countries. However, this practice is by no means limited to Asia.

In fact, sex-selective abortion has now made its way to the United States.

American women are now able to use an ultrasound to determine the gender of their babies, and then decide whether or not to abort them.

This can be done at approximately eighteen weeks into the pregnancy.

In societies where family sizes are limited, parents are more likely to choose to keep male children who will carry on the family name and have greater capacity to make money.

Far from leading to the empowerment of women, using abortion as a means to eliminate female children is perhaps the worst form of misogyny possible.

In spite of this bad news, there are some positive developments that have been taking place. For example, India has already taken the lead in eliminating sex-selective abortions, but not before nearly ten million lives were lost to it [3].

————–

References

[1] Douthat, Ross. “160 Million and Counting.” New York Times. N.p., 27 Jun 2011. Web. 16 Jul 2011.

[2] Mosher, Steven. (2008). “Sex Selective Abortion Comes To America.” LifeSiteNews http://www.lifesitenews.com/news/archive/ldn/2008/apr/08041510z

[3] BBC News. (2006). “India Loses 10m Female Births.” http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4592890.stm

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Roe v. Wade — Supreme Court Decisions on Abortion

Supreme Court, Abortion, Precedent, Roe v. Wade, Doe v. Bolton, ViabilityIn 1973, the Roe v. Wade decision was handed down by the Supreme Court of the United States. This decision, with it’s companion case Doe v. Bolton, effectively struck down abortion laws in all 50 states making abortion on demand legal during all 9 months of pregnancy for virtually any reason.

Roe v. Wade is perhaps one of the most infamous court cases in American history.

Because of this sharp change in the legal status of abortion, the Roe v. Wade decision created a backlash and led the pro-life movement to focus it’s efforts on influencing appointments to the Supreme Court for many years.

The effects of Roe and Doe, while still felt today, have been mitigated and modified by the 1992 decision Planned Parenthood v. Casey. Roe v. Wade gets all the attention, but PP v. Casey really sets the standards for abortion laws today.

Summary of Roe v. Wade

roe v wade abortion decisionIn this case, Jane Roe (her actual name is Norma McCorvey), had wanted an abortion, but was not legally allowed to receive one in her home state of Texas [1].

Roe first attempted to lie and claim she was raped so an exception could be made, but was unsuccessful. She also tried to obtain an abortion illegally, but was unable to do that either [2].

This case declared that placing restrictions on abortion goes against the 9th and 14th amendments and is therefore unconstitutional [3].

The end result of this court case was that the abortion was declared a fundamental right.

While it technically did allow for restrictions on abortion once the fetus becomes viable, this generally does not happen. This is largely because of the judgment in its companion case.

Doe v. Bolton took things a bit further and filled in more details. In Doe, a woman from Georgia woman was denied an abortion because her life was not at risk, and she was not raped [4].

The decision in this case was that it should not solely be up to the clinician to decide if an abortion is justifiable. It was written that reasons for abortion can be related to a variety of factors:

– Physical
– Emotional
– Psychological
– Familial
– The Age of the Woman

As a result of Doe v. Bolton, abortions are now legal throughout all 9 months of the pregnancy, for virtually any reason.

While many people have heard of Roe v. Wade before, many people may be surprised to learn the extent to which it and Doe made abortion so easily available.

Roe v. Wade Criticism

Roe was not only controversial because of it’s effects on abortion, but it also has come under fire by pro-choice legal scholars due to it’s poor legal reasoning. It is seen as an overreach by many on both sides.

In addition to criticism from pro-life and pro-choice scholars, Roe v. Wade has garnered criticism from Supreme Court Justices as well:

“Roe v. Wade … ventured too far in the change it ordered and presented an incomplete justification for its action.”– Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg

“I find nothing in the language or history of the Constitution to support the Court’s judgment” in Roe v. Wade. – Justice Byron White

“This Court’s abortion decisions have … worked a major distortion in the Court’s constitutional jurisprudence …” – Justice Sandra Day O’Connor

Despite being extremely pro-choice, Justice Ginsburg has criticized Roe on multiple occasions.

Who is Jane Roe?

The woman used by abortion advocates to get this case to the Supreme Court never actually had an abortion. Her name is Norma McCorvey and she eventually became pro-life after years of working in the abortion industry. The fact that the poster-child for the legalization of abortion became pro-life has been largely ignored.

What if Roe is Overturned?

It takes a long time for the Supreme Court to overturn its mistakes. It took nearly 60 years to overturn racial segregation upheld by Plessy v. Ferguson, for example.

If Roe v Wade is overturned, the most likely outcome is that the states have to decide the legal status individually.

However, it could happen that the court finds that legal abortion itself violates the constitution and effectively ban it everywhere. Most scholars say that this is unlikely.

Regardless of what happens, a true pro-lifer will continue to do the same things because the law will not entirely end abortion and women will continue to be in need of compassion and help.

Other Supreme Court Cases on Abortion

Doe v. Bolton

Planned Parenthood v. Casey

Gonzales v. Carhart

 

 

 

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References

[1] McCorvey, Norma. (1997). Won by Love. Thomas Nelson, Inc. Publishers, 1997, 241.

[2] Ibid

[3] U.S. Supreme Court. (1973). “Roe v. Wade (No. 70-18) .” Cornell University Law School. U.S. Supreme Court, 22 Jan 1973. Web. 26 Jun 2011. 

[4] U.S. Supreme Court. (1973). “Doe v. Bolton (No. 70-40).” Cornell University Law School. U.S. Supreme Court, 22 Jan 1973. Web. 26 Jun 2011. 

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Image from www.nmnewsandviews.com

Is Abortion Wrong and Why?

Early, Abortion, Procedure, Pill, Risk

The overwhelming majority of abortions are committed early during a pregnancy. Approximately 89% of abortions take place during the first trimester [1].

Additionally, more than half of women who have abortions say that they would have preferred having their abortion earlier in their pregnancy [2].

Why is this?

There are many possible reasons.

First and foremost, early term abortions are sometimes considered the easiest. In the early stages, women can often take an abortion medication through the ninth week of pregnancy and abort in the privacy of their own homes.

Many women also want to hide the fact that they are pregnant and avoid the stigma that might be attached to being young or unmarried.

However, does this mean that abortion is more acceptable at this stage?

There is a very clear consensus within the medical community that human life begins at conception [3]. Beyond this point, developmental changes certainly take place, but throughout each stage the developing preborn is a human life.

One reason why some women feel more comfortable aborting earlier on is because changes in the baby become more visible as time goes on. Approaching the second trimester, the major organs and heartbeat become visible via ultrasound. At this time, a baby simply begins to appear more like what it will look like at the time of birth.

Additionally, Planned Parenthood claims that the risks of abortion are not as great earlier on in the pregnancy [4]. They report that the price increases the longer that you wait and the more invasive the procedure may be. In a few instances, babies are even carried to term and aborted after they are partially delivered (partial birth abortion).

However, one must always be a bit wary of seemingly too good to be true offers in life, especially ones that are made by an organization that is trying to sell you their service.

The unfortunate truth is that abortion carries risk at every stage of pregnancy, and every abortion claims an innocent life.

———-

References

[1] Planned Parenthood. (2010). “Abortion After the First Trimester in the United States.” Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Sep 2010. Web. 12 Jun 2011. 

[2] Guttmacher Institute. (2011). “Facts on Induced Abortion in the United States .”Guttmacher Institute, May 2011. Web. 12 Jun 2011. 

[3] Report, Subcommittee on Separation of Powers to Senate Judiciary Committee S-158, 97th Congress, 1st Session 1981, 7.

[4] Planned Parenthood 2010

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Abortion in Illinois: A Battle Looms Ahead

Abortion, Illinois, Pro-Choice, Pro-Life, Planned Parenthood

That being said, Illinois also remains very close to the national average in terms of abortion rates. In 2008, the abortion rate in the U.S. was approximately 19% [1] In Illinois, the abortion rate was 20% [2].

As of 2008, there were 37 abortion providers in Illinois [3]. In this same year, there were an estimated 54,920 abortions within the state, this comprises about 4.5% of abortions nationwide [4].

One reason why abortions are so common in Illinois is because of the lack of laws for parental consent. According to the Planned Parenthood website, Illinois is one of the several states that does not require any parental notification in any circumstance [5].

In fact, Illinois does not have waiting periods or limits on publicly funded abortions either [6].

In light of this news, it might be easy to get depressed. However, this also means that the unborn are that much more in need of our help.

Still, pro-lifers in Illinois have a lot to be grateful for. Groups such as Illinois Right to Life, the Pro-Life Action League, Students for Life of Illinois, and many others have all done amazing work within the state, in defense of human life.

————–

References

[1] Guttmacher Institute. (2011). “State Facts About Abortion: Illinois.” Guttmacher Institute, 2011. Web. 17 Jun 2011.

[2] Ibid

[3] Ibid

[4] Ibid

[5] Ibid

Other References
Whitted, Cleary and Takiff. (2011). “Illinois Law on Abortions.” Whitted, Cleary, and Takiff , 2011. Web. 17 Jun 2011.
Americans United for Life. (2009). “Illinois.” Americans United for Life. N.p., 2009. Web. 17 Jun 2011.
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New York City: Abortion Capitol of America

Abortion, New York City, NYC, Abortion Rate, African-American, Black, Pro-Life, Pro-Choice

With its everyday hustle and bustle, New York City is one of the most populated cities in the United States.

New York City also has the highest rates of abortion compared to the rest of the United States.

Nearly forty percent of all pregnancies in the city end in abortion. This is about twice the national average [1].

The statistic is even higher for African Americans–nearly sixty percent of black pregnancies end in abortion. [2]

In many ways, New York City acts as a model and representation to the rest of the society about how America sees new life.

Despite the fact that New York City is full of some of the most wealthy people in the world, they have the highest levels of abortion.

Although some abortions result from health problems or other reasons, the vast majority, at least over 95%, occur because they are simply inconvenient [3].

At the very least, we are sending the message to the world that we are self-centered and are primarily just concerned with our own well-being.

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References

[1] Vitello, Paul. (2011). “Religious Leaders Call for New Efforts to Lower the City’s ‘Chilling’ Abortion Rate.

[2] Ibid.

[3] Finer, Lawrence B., Frohwirth, Lori F., Dauphinee, Lindsay A., Singh, Susheela, and Moore,
Anne. (2005). “Reasons U.S. Women Have Abortions: Quantitative and Qualitative
Perspectives.” Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health. 37.3 (2005): 110-118.
Print.

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